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In order for entrainment to occur, the period of a rhythm must be altered to match the period of the light-dark cycle.


According to the non-parametric theory of entrainment [ 24 ], the matching of the two periods is attained by daily phase shifts that equal the difference between the period of the light-dark cycle and the period of the pacemaker. In studies of photoresponsiveness of the circadian system, very little attention has been paid to the previous history of photic stimulation of the animals. In many studies, animals were kept in darkness for the duration of the study and were repeatedly exposed to light pulses at intervals of 10 to 46 days without intermediary re-entrainment to a Acrosser AR-B2001B cycle [ 618 - 21252633344041 ], so that the actual state of dark adaptation of the animals at the time of each pulse could not be ascertained. In other studies, light-pulse tests were consistently preceded by a standardizing light-dark cycle but the interval in darkness prior to the pulse ranged from 5 to 21 days across studies [ 459102230394243 ].

Only three studies in Syrian hamsters [ 73536 ] and two studies in mice [ 2728 ] have systematically investigated the effect of duration of dark exposure on circadian photic responsiveness. These studies showed that the magnitude of phase shifts evoked by light pulses is greater the longer the animals are maintained in darkness, up to several weeks [ 727283536 ], which implies that most previous studies of phase-response functions had an inherent design flaw. The finding that the magnitude of phase shifts depends on the duration of previous exposure to darkness has important implications not only for laboratory studies of photic phase-response functions but also for studies of animal behavior in the wild.

AR-BB - Opti-Isolated Digital Input Card

For instance, animals that are in darkness but have recently been exposed to a natural light-dark cycle are likely to have their circadian pacemakers closely in phase with the zeitgeber and, therefore, not to require large shifts in order to re-establish entrainment. On the other hand, animals that have Acrosser AR-B2001B in darkness for several weeks in a burrow or underground tunnel, for example are likely Acrosser AR-B2001B have drifted from the appropriate phase angle of entrainment and, consequently, will require greater phase shifts in order to re-establish entrainment. Thus, greater responsiveness to light in dark-adapted animals may be an adaptive feature of the circadian system. Because the effects of dark adaptation on circadian photoresponsiveness have been studied in only two rodent species mice and Syrian hamstersboth of them nocturnal, the present study was designed to verify the generality of the phenomenon in four nocturnal and three diurnal species.

Materials and methods 2. Animals Acrosser AR-B2001B rodent species were used in the study. The three diurnal species were the Nile grass rat Arvicanthis niloticusthe degu Octodon degusand the Mongolian gerbil Meriones unguiculatus. Only degus and gerbils deemed to be diurnal were used in this study. The four nocturnal species were the Wistar rat Rattus norvegicusthe domestic mouse Mus musculusthe Siberian hamster Phodopus sungorusand the Syrian hamster Mesocricetus auratus.

Two strains of mice were used: Siberian hamsters were purchased from Sun Pet Acrosser AR-B2001B. Nile grass rats were obtained from our own colony [ 29 ].

All animals were 2 to 5 months old during the study. Baseline data but no phase-shift Acrosser AR-B2001B from some of the animals have been previously analyzed and published in a separate article [ 32 ]. A metallic running wheel 12 cm diameter for species under 80 g and 18 cm diameter for larger species was attached to each animal cage. The data acquisition boards were connected to computers that recorded the number of wheel revolutions in 6-min bins i. When called for by the experimental protocol, pulses of white light were administered in each animal's own isolation chamber 1 h, lux without physical disturbance of the animals.

To further reduce disturbance, cages and water bottles were replaced only at monthly intervals, under dim red light if necessary. Procedure All animals were housed under Acrosser AR-B2001B light-dark cycle with 12 hours of light per day LD The same LD cycle was used for all species for the purpose of uniformity.


For species that exhibit strong reproductive seasonality such as the Siberian hamsterhowever, LD This was deemed to be an acceptable cost for the institution of a uniform LD cycle for all species, particularly because exposure to short photoperiods enhances i. Single light pulses 1 h, lux were presented at one of six times after the beginning of DD: After the purchase, this will give you even further by Mail sent to. You will receive a written by us after the Acrosser AR-B2001B Invoice including VAT.


This can also be accessed online through our checkout. Our article includes only the article listed explicitly in the description and accessories without additional accessories.

Acrosser AR-B2001B You will receive the article in principle as as described in the item description. Slight variations in appearance, which do not affect the functions and properties of the article, are possible.

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Further More we will give 24 months warranty for new and 12 months for used items. You will get only the described items and accessories without Acrosser AR-B2001B other equipment. You will get your item as described in the description. Minor differences in appearance do not affect, Which the function are possible.


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